Exclusionology: Research and Exercises

Exclusionology is the study of exclusions. Since 2014, the Exclusionology class has already brought training and challenging comparisons on the exclusion decision in latent print examination to hundreds of examiners. Exclusionology: Research and Exercises is updated for 2019 and discusses new research into the exclusion decision with new practical comparisons for attendees. This class reviews how to establish standards for exclusion and incorporate them into your agency’s protocols, how to use target groups when searching for similarities and differences, how to recognize sufficiency for the exclusion decision, and when the inconclusive decision is more appropriate. Upon completing the class, examiners will be able to employ techniques to reduce the risk of erroneous exclusion and gain confidence in their exclusion decisions.

Contact Eric Ray to bring this training course to your agency.

Course Objectives:

  • Define the meaning and weight of an exclusion
  • Establish the importance of a standard for exclusion
  • Discuss research supporting an exclusion standard
  • Practice target group selection and searching
  • Examine the exclusion sufficiency threshold
  • Resolve conflicts regarding exclusions
  • Consider the effect of bias in the exclusion decision
  • Complete challenging practical comparisons
  • Obtain greater confidence in exclusion decisions


  • Eric Ray has been a Forensic Scientist in the Latent Print field since 2007 and is a Certified Latent Print Examiner. He earned a BS in Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology from the University of Arizona. As a member of the IAI, Eric is on the Editorial Board of the JFI. Eric has chaired the IAI Special Committee on Latent Print Probability Modeling and was a member of the OSAC Friction Ridge Subcommittee. Eric has published and presented extensively on Reducing Erroneous Exclusions. In his spare time he also co-hosts the Double Loop Podcast, an online program on fingerprint topics.

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